- The 20th century
- Key events
- Making sense of the tangible world
- Health and Welfare
- Space exploration
- Scientific advancement: computers, technology & textiles
- Democracy & social mobility
- Transport and leisure
- Colonialism & post-colonialism
- Sexuality, marriage, parenthood & divorce
- Income & consumerism
- Humans and the environment
- Educational context
- Mass culture & entertainment
- The world of work
- Making sense of the intangible world
Immigration and integration
1940s & 1950s
Aftermath of the Second World War
The British Nationality Act, 1948
- Indians and Pakistanis began to arrive in large numbers once their countries became independent in 1947. Many of them worked in factories or drove buses. Some ran small shops or post offices
- The first of many Afro-Caribbean immigrants from the West Indies arrived by boat on the Empire Windrush in 1948. Many of them found work in public transport (buses and trains) and in the National Health Service.
Immigration from Europe
- Immediately after the Second World War, large numbers of Poles and Ukrainians fled to the United Kingdom, because their countries had become part of the Soviet Union
- In 1956, there was an unsuccessful uprising in Hungary against Soviet rule. Following this, many Hungarians fled to the United Kingdom.
- Some companies refused to employ them
- Some landlords would not rent property to them
- Some pubs would not allow them in.
- Two Commonwealth Immigrants Acts were passed in 1962 and 1968. These both restricted the right to migrate to the United Kingdom
- In 1965, the Race Relations Act made it a crime to discriminate against people because of the colour of their skin
- A new wave of Indian migrants arrived in the United Kingdom in the years following 1965, after being expelled from Uganda and Kenya.
1970s and 1980s
- British Nationality Act, 1981: This placed further restrictions on the right to migrate to the United Kingdom.
- Somalis: A civil war in Somalia, which continued into the 1990s, led to many Somali citizens being granted asylum in the United Kingdom.
1990s - today
Labour governments, 1997-2010
The governments led by Tony Blair and Gordon Brown removed some of the restrictions on people migrating from outside Europe. As a result, numbers of migrants rose considerably. This was a controversial policy, welcomed by some but condemned by others.
The European Union
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