The White Devil Contents
- Social / political context of The White Devil
- Religious / philosophical context of The White Devil
- The Theatre
Representative of the Catholic Church
Cardinal Monticelso first appears in Act 2 sc 1, where he joins forces with Francisco de Medici in criticising Brachiano for his behaviour in neglecting his wife and embarking on an affair with Vittoria. Francisco's argument shows concern for the plight of Isabella, his sister. As a man of the church, Monticelso concentrates on the moral argument:
Neglect your awful throne, for the soft down
Of an insatiate bed.'
Monticelso would have been clearly identified as a cardinal to the audience by the red colour of his robes. Vittoria refers to this in Act 3 sc 2:
Thou art seldom found in scarlet.'
Later in the play Monticelso is elected Pope. Thus during the course of the drama he represents two of the most important figures in the Roman Catholic Church. His characterisation and association with duplicity would have reinforced the contemporary negative attitude towards Roman Catholicism. (See Religious/Philosophical Context > Attitudes to Catholicism in Webster's time > Catholic stereotypes in The White Devil.)
Monticelso as a villain
Monticelso's main role in the play is as a fellow conspirator with Francisco to plot the downfall of Vittoria and Brachiano:
- He proposes to Camillo that he should leave his wife in order to fight the pirates. He readily admits in private that these pirates do not exist and it is a ploy to allow Brachiano and Vittoria to show their lust for one another:
Of him for a sea captain,' (Act 2 scene1)
- Monticelso is implicated in spying and other typically Machiavellian behaviour by Vittoria in Act 3 scene 2:
As to my thoughts,'
The Cardinal's abuse of power
When Monticelso takes the leading role in Vittoria's trial, he acts as both judge and accuser. With some justification Vittoria complains that he has ‘ravished Justice', whilst the English Ambassador says that his accusations are ‘too bitter', following the Cardinal's misogynistic diatribe against whores (Act 3 sc 2).
Monticelso encourages Francisco to take revenge on Brachiano and Vittoria after his sister's death and is prepared to supply him with helpers. He has a ‘black book' with the names of villains who will undertake any manner of villainy for a price:
A man might study all the prisons o'er
Yet never attain this knowledge.'
(Act 4 scene 1)
A change of heart?
In Act 4 scene 3 Monticelso is elected Pope and this appears to change his attitude towards Francisco's schemes of revenge. In conversation with Lodovico, who is heavily implicated in Francisco's vengeance, Monticelso takes the standard Christian view of revenge in condemning him:
Dost thou imagine thou canst slide on blood
And not be tainted with a shameful fall?'
This is the last time that Monticelso appears on stage, which might indicate that he really has removed himself from the plots of the conspirators. Yet Francisco has already declared that he distrusts the Cardinal, and after his departure Lodovico is all too ready to believe that the Pope is bribing him to take vengeance. For the audience, Monticelso's reputation for villainy and duplicity would seem to outweigh his newly proclaimed virtue.
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