Songs of Innocence and Experience Contents
- Social / political context
- Religious / philosophical context
- Literary context
- Textual history
- Songs of Innocence
- Introduction (I)
- The Shepherd
- The Ecchoing Green
- The Lamb
- The little black boy
- The Blossom
- The chimney sweeper (I)
- The little boy lost (I)
- The Little Boy Found
- Laughing song
- A Cradle Song
- The Divine Image
- Holy Thursday (I)
- Nurse's Song (I)
- Infant Joy
- A Dream
- On Another's Sorrow
- Songs of Experience
- Introduction (E)
- Earth's Answer
- The Clod and the Pebble
- Holy Thursday (E)
- The Little Girl Lost
- The Little Girl Found
- The Chimney Sweeper (E)
- Nurse's Song (E)
- The Sick Rose
- The Fly
- The Angel
- The Tyger
- My Pretty Rose-tree
- Ah! Sun-flower
- The Lilly
- The Garden of Love
- The Little Vagabond
- The Human Abstract
- Infant Sorrow
- A Poison Tree
- A Little Boy Lost (E)
- A Little Girl Lost
- To Tirzah
- The Schoolboy
- The Voice of the Ancient Bard
- A Divine Image
What makes a good English exam answer?
Focus on the question
What are the terms of the question?
- Decide what the key words of the question are and underline them
- Ensure that you have defined them at least in your own mind – if you think they are problematic, define them at the beginning of your essay
- Make sure your definition is sound; do not try to stretch the meaning of words too far, but do not just jump at the first possible idea.
What has been asked?
- Answer the question asked – not the one you would like to have been asked
- Avoid being irrelevant
- Be sure that you show explicitly enough how your ideas relate to the question.
If you are asked to analyse an extract:
- Look closely at it, considering the writer's choice of language
- Do not generalise and do not waffle
- Keep your eye on the given passage.
Wake up the examiner!
Be willing to think
- Do not just go for the first possible approach
- Try to range widely, covering a good number of ideas, as long as you stay within the terms of the question
- Be willing to dispute the terms of the question if you are given the opportunity (e.g. questions which ask: ‘how far … ‘, ‘to what extent … ‘, ‘do you think … ')
- Even though you might want to limit a generalisation in the question, you must do so very precisely. It's always very safe to say, ‘I agree to a certain extent', and hedge your bets, but unless you can be very precise exactly where and why you want to limit the scope of the quotation, you will not score a great deal.
Create a strong opening and closing
A reader of an essay – usually a teacher or examiner - is going to be marking many similar essays. To send the reader to sleep at once:
- Just repeat the words of the question (‘This essay asks about … and I am going to … ' )
- Or give the hackneyed dictionary definition.
Instead, try to start in a way which wakes him or her up. Try:
- A short, controversial statement
- A relevant quotation
- A relevant piece of evidence.
The main thing is that you have thought about it and realised that a strong opening is very helpful.
A strong ending is important since it is what the reader comes to last in your answer and so helps to create the final impression:
- You might raise an interesting question to leave the examiner thinking
- Or have a useful quotation to end with.
Illustrate amply with relevant material
- Do not try to get by on ignorance and waffle!
- Use a good number of brief but totally appropriate quotations from the text to prove each point you are making
- You need to know your text well to do this!
A fluent style
You need to think out each sentence (very rapidly!) before you put pen to paper:
- Does it say what you want?
- Does it make the point?
Anyone claiming to be a student of English is expected to have mastered the mechanics of the language:
- If you know you have problems with spelling and punctuation, do something about it before any examination
- In examinations, you will be penalised for errors
- Examiners often are told to award marks for ‘quality of language'.
- You need to know your text well enough so that all its ideas are in your head and that relevant quotations come easily to mind
- When you use textual quotations, remember to try to blend them seamlessly into your own sentence-structure
- If you have simply memorised a few quotations, they may not be the most apt ones. Avoid the temptation of quoting them anyway.
- Say what you want in a clear way without going round in circles
- Leave yourself time to make new points
- Always avoid repeating ideas
- If you do find yourself writing ‘as I mentioned earlier', check whether repetition of the same point is really helpful – it will rarely earn any further marks.
Appropriate tone and vocabulary
Most of the essays you will write require a formal register of language:
- Texting abbreviations and slang which most people naturally use in spoken language or on their mobiles are not appropriate in a written essay
- The tone and style of the language must be right for the designated audience
- Students of literature are also expected to have a wide range of literary terminology which they can apply correctly
- Reading some literary criticism during your course will help you.
Organising Your Time in Exams
Plan a coherent line of argument
Have the confidence to take time to plan. It is worth it:
- You will save time in the end
- You will have a much sharper, more authoritative piece of writing
- Someone who is a practised planner can usefully give a quarter of the overall time allowed to making a plan. This means none of the remaining time allowance will be wasted in trying to think of the next point. (see How to plan an essay.)
Divide your time appropriately
In an examination, you will have several essays to write or sections to complete:
- Give each the appropriate time
- Even if you can write an amazingly stunning essay on one topic, don't take time off other questions in order to do it. You can't get more than maximum marks on any one question, however brilliant your answer
- You will not do well if you fail to answer all compulsory sections
- If you are allowed your text in an examination and rely on leafing through it to find ideas in an exam, you will run out of time
- Don't repeat what you have said earlier: e.g.. ‘So we see that…' (followed by a summary of everything you have already said). You won't get further marks
- End with something memorable
- Above all, never waste time!
What makes a good Blake exam answer?
Try to be different
It is amazing how many candidates choose the same three or four poems to answer any number of questions. There are other equally good poems to illustrate your answer or to analyse. You need to show the examiner you have not been spoon-fed answers.
What to Prepare
- Be sure of the main features of Blake's poetry and have examples ready
- Have in mind several series of poems that compare well with one another. The Summary of Themes already provides such groupings linked by with themes. But have some groups which are linked by imagery, verse form, type of speaker and genre (e.g. pastoral; lyrics and songs).
Show your Knowledge
- You will probably be invited to focus on TWO or THREE poems. But show that you know others by brief references and comparisons
- Similarly, try to show by a passing remark that you understand any biblical, classical or philosophical references, but don't stop to explain them at length unless it is central to your argument. The examiner will already know the explanation.
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