Act 5 scene 6
An angry Flamineo demands that his sister Vittoria (who is accompanied by Zanche) rewards him for his service to Brachiano. However, she bequeaths him nothing, since he is their brother Marcello's killer. Flamineo threatens her and leaves briefly, returning with two pairs of pistols. Although Vittoria says he will inherit all her wealth, Flamineo claims he is acting under Brachiano's orders. Flamineo says that he intends to die with her as neither are safe now that Brachiano is dead and suicide is preferable.
Vittoria and Zanche appear to agree to this death pact, but they want to persuade him to die first so that they can escape. Flamineo gives the pistols to the two women so that they can shoot him and each other at the same time. Vittoria and Zanche shoot Flamineo and he falls to the ground and appears to be dying. They remind him of his wickedness and tell him that he is destined for hell. However, Flamineo now rises and tells them he has played a trick on them as there were no bullets in the pistols and so he is not hurt. He claims he did it to test their loyalty and now he is convinced of the treachery of all women.
Lodovico and Gasparo then enter with co-conspirators, Pedro and Carlo. With cries of ‘Isabella, Isabella!' they throw off their disguise and are recognised by Flamineo. When Lodovico explains that ‘Mulinassar' is really Francisco, Vittoria realises that they are all doomed.
The conspirators bind their victims and taunt them. Both Vittoria and Zanche show courage in the face of death, accusing the conspirators of cowardice in striking at helpless victims. Flamineo shows admiration for his sister's bravery, who acknowledges the part passion has played in her downfall and regrets that she ever encountered great men.
With both women dead, Flamineo acknowledges the wickedness of his life, but defiantly calls on thunder to accompany his death. Suddenly thunderous pounding on the doors leads to the entry of young Giovanni, his guards and the ambassadors. The guards shoot and wound Lodovico, who tells Giovanni that the murders were done on the instructions of his uncle, Francisco. Giovanni orders Lodovico and his companions to be taken to prison to be tortured. Lodovico leaves defiantly saying he has no regrets for what he did.
Giovanni orders the bodies to be removed and the play ends with an enigmatic quotation.
Enter Vittoria with a book in her hand: Flamineo's disrespect towards Vittoria's breviary or psalter indicated his low moral position. Carrying a book on stage was also seen as an indication of a character's melancholy.
How ruffin? … Nay, stay, blouze: A ‘ruffin' is a devil and ‘blouze' a fat, red-faced woman. These initial insults set the tone of the scene.
I give that portion … slain his brother: This is a reference to the biblical account of Cain and Abel, in which Cain killed his brother Abel (Genesis 4:1-16). This has parallels with Flamineo's killing of his brother, Marcello. Along with Judas, Cain was seen as an archetype of despair. (See Big ideas from the Bible > Cain and Abel.)
Shall we groan in irons … die at any's bidding: This shows Flamineo's resolve to choose the manner of his death. Choosing suicide or making a death pact is regarded as a sin according to Christian belief, since the fate of human beings should be left in the hands of God.
say your prayers … make you ready: Catholics believed that it was important to confess sins to God before dying so as to able to enter heaven in a state of grace. Gasparo later tells Flamineo to Recommend yourself to heaven.
palace of the soul … soul's slaughter house: Vittoria sees the body as the palace of the soul rather than its prison, which is a more common Christian metaphor. This may be an indication of Vittoria's sensual nature. If Flamineo damns himself by suicide he would forfeit the chance of his soul's eternal life. See Big ideas from the Bible > Judgement
despair with gall and stibium: Despair is flavoured with bitter substances and poisons (gall – bile and stibium – antimony) and so leads to suicide. This is another of the frequent examples of poison imagery.
that .. made for devils / Eternal darkness: According to Christian theology, hell is the realm of devils, associated with torment, fire and the absence of light. See later references to dark and horrid / fire from hell / soot.
in graves .. at last day.. /.. shall rise: Vittoria refers to the Christian belief that at the final judgement, previously dead Christians will come back to life, based on the events after the death of Jesus on the cross in Matthew 27:50-53. (See Big ideas > Judgement; Apocalypse, Revelation, the end Times, the Second Coming.)
mandrakes: Because of their often humanoid shape, these plant roots were believed to shriek if pulled from the ground, leading to the death of any who heard them.
two cupping glasses: Flamineo makes an analogy between the pistols and the contemporary medicinal practice of drawing blood out of a body (by creating suction on the skin by means of a hot glass).
Whither shall I go now? … cart drawn with one horse: This supposed death speech of Flamineo's includes many examples of great men reduced to a humiliating fate, taken from Menippos by the Roman poet, Lucian.
mix'd with earth: Flamineo refers to the words of the burial service (see Liturgy Burial of the dead:Committal which reflect the Genesis account that God created the first man from earth Genesis 2:7.
What a religious oath was Styx: The Styx was a Greek mythological river that formed the boundary between the land of the living and of the dead. The gods respected the Styx and swore binding oaths on it.
springe .. fox .. braches: Flamineo uses hunting imagery to portray his death.
Artillery Yard: A contemporary reference to the shooting practices held in Bishopsgate which James I revived in 1610.
We have brought … A matachin it seems: This is a reference to the masque; the dance of masked revelers. A matachin is a sword dance performed in masks and costumes. Lodovico and his fellow conspirators have been disguised as Capuchin monks who also carry swords. (See The Theatre > Design of Theatres > Masques)
the pillar: This would have supported the roof of an open-air stage. (See The Theatre > Design of Theatres > Four levels of acting.)
You, my death's man … ask forgiveness: The convention was for an executioner to ask the victim's forgiveness.
I'll cut off your train: The tail or train of a comet, here referring to Zanche, the attendant to Vittoria. Halley's comet had appeared in 1607.
good for the falling sickness: Elizabethans believed that sprinkled blood helped cure epilepsy.
‘Twas a manly blow: A sarcastic remark by Vittoria drawing attention to the fact that her attacker is striking a woman who is bound.
toledo .. English fox: References to Spanish and English swords.
O my greatest sin …blood pays for't: Sexual passion was symbolically represented by blood. Here Vittoria blames her loss of actual blood on the metaphorical blood of her sexual passion for Brachiano.
nine muses: The Greek goddesses who inspire the creation of literature and the arts.
O happy they … but by report: This could be the moral of the play. Any character who serves the court and gets involved with ‘great men' seems to suffer.
lions i'th' Tower: Since the Middle Ages, monarchs had kept a small menagerie in the Tower of London.
Candlemas day: Celebrated on February 2nd, this marked the event of the baby Jesus being presented in the Temple at Jerusalem and the purification of his mother, Mary, following childbirth.
This busy trade of life … to my farewell: Flamineo's dying words appear to reject the kind of life he has led in the service of the court. He says the ‘trade' of life is futile and rejects the flattery of the courts preferring the natural sound of thunder, which was traditionally supposed to accompany the fall of great men.
I limb'd this night-piece: Given the amount of blood-shed, Lodovico's analogy that he has ‘painted' the dark scene is macabre.
Let guilty men … made of slender reeds: An ambiguous maxim to end the play. Who is Giovanni referring to? It could be Lodovico, Francisco or Flamineo. It implies that the guilty can never be secure. This is true of Flamineo and Lodovico whose fates are sealed, but Francisco will probably escape censure.
Investigating Act 5 scene 6
- How does the dialogue in the opening of the scene convey the tension between the characters?
- What justification does Flamineo provide for threatening Vittoria?
- What examples of Machiavellian behaviour do we have in the first part of this scene (up to the point where Flamineo rises from his supposed death)?
- Several characters make concluding comments on powerful men, ambition and court life.
- Identify three different examples of these.
- Who is killed in the scene and by whom?
- Who appears to escape unhurt and unpunished from the various plots?
- What might this lead an audience to conclude about the world which has been depicted?
- English Standard Version
- King James Version
1Now Adam knew Eve his wife, and she conceived and bore Cain, saying, I have gotten a man with the help of the Lord. 2And again, she bore his brother Abel. Now Abel was a keeper of sheep, and Cain a worker of the ground. 3In the course of time Cain brought to the Lord an offering of the fruit of the ground, 4and Abel also brought of the firstborn of his flock and of their fat portions. And the Lord had regard for Abel and his offering, 5but for Cain and his offering he had no regard. So Cain was very angry, and his face fell. 6The Lord said to Cain, Why are you angry, and why has your face fallen? 7If you do well, will you not be accepted? And if you do not do well, sin is crouching at the door. Its desire is for you, but you must rule over it. 8Cain spoke to Abel his brother. And when they were in the field, Cain rose up against his brother Abel and killed him. 9Then the Lord said to Cain, Where is Abel your brother? He said, I do not know; am I my brother's keeper? 10And the Lord said, What have you done? The voice of your brother's blood is crying to me from the ground. 11And now you are cursed from the ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother's blood from your hand. 12When you work the ground, it shall no longer yield to you its strength. You shall be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth. 13Cain said to the Lord, My punishment is greater than I can bear. 14Behold, you have driven me today away from the ground, and from your face I shall be hidden. I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth, and whoever finds me will kill me. 15Then the Lord said to him, Not so! If anyone kills Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And the Lord put a mark on Cain, lest any who found him should attack him. 16Then Cain went away from the presence of the Lord and settled in the land of Nod, east of Eden. 17Cain knew his wife, and she conceived and bore Enoch. When he built a city, he called the name of the city after the name of his son, Enoch. 18To Enoch was born Irad, and Irad fathered Mehujael, and Mehujael fathered Methushael, and Methushael fathered Lamech. 19And Lamech took two wives. The name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. 20Adah bore Jabal; he was the father of those who dwell in tents and have livestock. 21His brother's name was Jubal; he was the father of all those who play the lyre and pipe. 22Zillah also bore Tubal-cain; he was the forger of all instruments of bronze and iron. The sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah. 23Lamech said to his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; you wives of Lamech, listen to what I say: I have killed a man for wounding me, a young man for striking me. 24If Cain's revenge is sevenfold, then Lamech's is seventy-sevenfold. 25And Adam knew his wife again, and she bore a son and called his name Seth, for she said, God has appointed for me another offspring instead of Abel, for Cain killed him. 26To Seth also a son was born, and he called his name Enosh. At that time people began to call upon the name of the Lord.
1And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the LORD. 2And she again bare his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground. 3And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD. 4And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering: 5But unto Cain and to his offering he had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell. 6And the LORD said unto Cain, Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countenance fallen? 7If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him. 8And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him. 9And the LORD said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother? And he said, I know not: Am I my brother's keeper? 10And he said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground. 11And now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand; 12When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth. 13And Cain said unto the LORD, My punishment is greater than I can bear. 14Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the earth; and from thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth; and it shall come to pass, that every one that findeth me shall slay me. 15And the LORD said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And the LORD set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him. 16And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden. 17And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bare Enoch: and he builded a city, and called the name of the city, after the name of his son, Enoch. 18And unto Enoch was born Irad: and Irad begat Mehujael: and Mehujael begat Methusael: and Methusael begat Lamech. 19And Lamech took unto him two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. 20And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of such as have cattle. 21And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ. 22And Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain, an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubalcain was Naamah. 23And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt. 24If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold. 25And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and called his name Seth: For God, said she, hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew. 26And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enos: then began men to call upon the name of the LORD.
- English Standard Version
- King James Version
1When morning came, all the chief priests and the elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death. 2And they bound him and led him away and delivered him over to Pilate the governor. 3Then when Judas, his betrayer, saw that Jesus was condemned, he changed his mind and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and the elders, 4saying, I have sinned by betraying innocent blood. They said, What is that to us? See to it yourself. 5And throwing down the pieces of silver into the temple, he departed, and he went and hanged himself. 6But the chief priests, taking the pieces of silver, said, It is not lawful to put them into the treasury, since it is blood money. 7So they took counsel and bought with them the potter's field as a burial place for strangers. 8Therefore that field has been called the Field of Blood to this day. 9Then was fulfilled what had been spoken by the prophet Jeremiah, saying, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him on whom a price had been set by some of the sons of Israel, 10and they gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord directed me. 11Now Jesus stood before the governor, and the governor asked him, Are you the King of the Jews? Jesus said, You have said so. 12But when he was accused by the chief priests and elders, he gave no answer. 13Then Pilate said to him, Do you not hear how many things they testify against you? 14But he gave him no answer, not even to a single charge, so that the governor was greatly amazed. 15Now at the feast the governor was accustomed to release for the crowd any one prisoner whom they wanted. 16And they had then a notorious prisoner called Barabbas. 17So when they had gathered, Pilate said to them, Whom do you want me to release for you: Barabbas, or Jesus who is called Christ? 18For he knew that it was out of envy that they had delivered him up. 19Besides, while he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent word to him, Have nothing to do with that righteous man, for I have suffered much because of him today in a dream. 20Now the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowd to ask for Barabbas and destroy Jesus. 21The governor again said to them, Which of the two do you want me to release for you? And they said, Barabbas. 22Pilate said to them, Then what shall I do with Jesus who is called Christ? They all said, Let him be crucified! 23And he said, Why, what evil has he done? But they shouted all the more, Let him be crucified! 24So when Pilate saw that he was gaining nothing, but rather that a riot was beginning, he took water and washed his hands before the crowd, saying, I am innocent of this man's blood; see to it yourselves. 25And all the people answered, His blood be on us and on our children! 26Then he released for them Barabbas, and having scourged Jesus, delivered him to be crucified. 27Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the governor's headquarters, and they gathered the whole battalion before him. 28And they stripped him and put a scarlet robe on him, 29and twisting together a crown of thorns, they put it on his head and put a reed in his right hand. And kneeling before him, they mocked him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews! 30And they spit on him and took the reed and struck him on the head. 31And when they had mocked him, they stripped him of the robe and put his own clothes on him and led him away to crucify him. 32As they went out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name. They compelled this man to carry his cross. 33And when they came to a place called Golgotha (which means Place of a Skull), 34they offered him wine to drink, mixed with gall, but when he tasted it, he would not drink it. 35And when they had crucified him, they divided his garments among them by casting lots. 36Then they sat down and kept watch over him there. 37And over his head they put the charge against him, which read, This is Jesus, the King of the Jews. 38Then two robbers were crucified with him, one on the right and one on the left. 39And those who passed by derided him, wagging their heads 40and saying, You who would destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross. 41So also the chief priests, with the scribes and elders, mocked him, saying, 42He saved others; he cannot save himself. He is the King of Israel; let him come down now from the cross, and we will believe in him. 43He trusts in God; let God deliver him now, if he desires him. For he said, I am the Son of God. 44And the robbers who were crucified with him also reviled him in the same way. 45Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land until the ninth hour. 46And about the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani? that is, My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? 47And some of the bystanders, hearing it, said, This man is calling Elijah. 48And one of them at once ran and took a sponge, filled it with sour wine, and put it on a reed and gave it to him to drink. 49But the others said, Wait, let us see whether Elijah will come to save him. 50And Jesus cried out again with a loud voice and yielded up his spirit. 51And behold, the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom. And the earth shook, and the rocks were split. 52The tombs also were opened. And many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised, 53and coming out of the tombs after his resurrection they went into the holy city and appeared to many. 54When the centurion and those who were with him, keeping watch over Jesus, saw the earthquake and what took place, they were filled with awe and said, Truly this was the Son of God! 55There were also many women there, looking on from a distance, who had followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering to him, 56among whom were Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James and Joseph and the mother of the sons of Zebedee. 57When it was evening, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who also was a disciple of Jesus. 58He went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Then Pilate ordered it to be given to him. 59And Joseph took the body and wrapped it in a clean linen shroud 60and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had cut in the rock. And he rolled a great stone to the entrance of the tomb and went away. 61Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were there, sitting opposite the tomb. 62The next day, that is, after the day of Preparation, the chief priests and the Pharisees gathered before Pilate 63and said, Sir, we remember how that impostor said, while he was still alive, After three days I will rise. 64Therefore order the tomb to be made secure until the third day, lest his disciples go and steal him away and tell the people, He has risen from the dead, and the last fraud will be worse than the first. 65Pilate said to them, You have a guard of soldiers. Go, make it as secure as you can. 66So they went and made the tomb secure by sealing the stone and setting a guard.
1When the morning was come, all the chief priests and elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death: 2And when they had bound him, they led him away, and delivered him to Pontius Pilate the governor. 3Then Judas, which had betrayed him, when he saw that he was condemned, repented himself, and brought again the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders, 4Saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood. And they said, What is that to us? see thou to that. 5And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, and departed, and went and hanged himself. 6And the chief priests took the silver pieces, and said, It is not lawful for to put them into the treasury, because it is the price of blood. 7And they took counsel, and bought with them the potter's field, to bury strangers in. 8Wherefore that field was called, The field of blood, unto this day. 9Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was valued, whom they of the children of Israel did value; 10And gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord appointed me. 11And Jesus stood before the governor: and the governor asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And Jesus said unto him, Thou sayest. 12And when he was accused of the chief priests and elders, he answered nothing. 13Then said Pilate unto him, Hearest thou not how many things they witness against thee? 14And he answered him to never a word; insomuch that the governor marvelled greatly. 15Now at that feast the governor was wont to release unto the people a prisoner, whom they would. 16And they had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas. 17Therefore when they were gathered together, Pilate said unto them, Whom will ye that I release unto you? Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ? 18For he knew that for envy they had delivered him. 19When he was set down on the judgment seat, his wife sent unto him, saying, Have thou nothing to do with that just man: for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him. 20But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitude that they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. 21The governor answered and said unto them, Whether of the twain will ye that I release unto you? They said, Barabbas. 22Pilate saith unto them, What shall I do then with Jesus which is called Christ? They all say unto him, Let him be crucified. 23And the governor said, Why, what evil hath he done? But they cried out the more, saying, Let him be crucified. 24When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but that rather a tumult was made, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye to it. 25Then answered all the people, and said, His blood be on us, and on our children. 26Then released he Barabbas unto them: and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified. 27Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the common hall, and gathered unto him the whole band of soldiers. 28And they stripped him, and put on him a scarlet robe. 29And when they had platted a crown of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand: and they bowed the knee before him, and mocked him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews! 30And they spit upon him, and took the reed, and smote him on the head. 31And after that they had mocked him, they took the robe off from him, and put his own raiment on him, and led him away to crucify him. 32And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name: him they compelled to bear his cross. 33And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, that is to say, a place of a skull, 34They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof, he would not drink. 35And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots. 36And sitting down they watched him there; 37And set up over his head his accusation written, THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS. 38Then were there two thieves crucified with him, one on the right hand, and another on the left. 39And they that passed by reviled him, wagging their heads, 40And saying, Thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself. If thou be the Son of God, come down from the cross. 41Likewise also the chief priests mocking him, with the scribes and elders, said, 42He saved others; himself he cannot save. If he be the King of Israel, let him now come down from the cross, and we will believe him. 43He trusted in God; let him deliver him now, if he will have him: for he said, I am the Son of God. 44The thieves also, which were crucified with him, cast the same in his teeth. 45Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour. 46And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? 47Some of them that stood there, when they heard that, said, This man calleth for Elias. 48And straightway one of them ran, and took a spunge, and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink. 49The rest said, Let be, let us see whether Elias will come to save him. 50Jesus, when he had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost. 51And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent; 52And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose, 53And came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto many. 54Now when the centurion, and they that were with him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake, and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, Truly this was the Son of God. 55And many women were there beholding afar off, which followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering unto him: 56Among which was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedees children. 57When the even was come, there came a rich man of Arimathaea, named Joseph, who also himself was Jesus' disciple: 58He went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded the body to be delivered. 59And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, 60And laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed. 61And there was Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary, sitting over against the sepulchre. 62Now the next day, that followed the day of the preparation, the chief priests and Pharisees came together unto Pilate, 63Saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, while he was yet alive, After three days I will rise again. 64Command therefore that the sepulchre be made sure until the third day, lest his disciples come by night, and steal him away, and say unto the people, He is risen from the dead: so the last error shall be worse than the first. 65Pilate said unto them, Ye have a watch: go your way, make it as sure as ye can. 66So they went, and made the sepulchre sure, sealing the stone, and setting a watch.
- We now commit his / her body to the ground:earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust:in sure and certain hope of the resurrection to eternal life through our Lord Jesus Christ(Common Worship)
- We therefore commit his body to the ground; earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust; in sure and certain hope of the Resurrection to eternal life(Book of Common Prayer)
- English Standard Version
- King James Version
1Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. 2And on the seventh day God finished his work that he had done, and he rested on the seventh day from all his work that he had done. 3So God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it God rested from all his work that he had done in creation. 4These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens. 5When no bush of the field was yet in the land and no small plant of the field had yet sprung up - for the Lord God had not caused it to rain on the land, and there was no man to work the ground, 6and a mist was going up from the land and was watering the whole face of the ground - 7then the Lord God formed the man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living creature. 8And the Lord God planted a garden in Eden, in the east, and there he put the man whom he had formed. 9And out of the ground the Lord God made to spring up every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. The tree of life was in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. 10A river flowed out of Eden to water the garden, and there it divided and became four rivers. 11The name of the first is the Pishon. It is the one that flowed around the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. 12And the gold of that land is good; bdellium and onyx stone are there. 13The name of the second river is the Gihon. It is the one that flowed around the whole land of Cush. 14And the name of the third river is the Tigris, which flows east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates. 15The Lord God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to work it and keep it. 16And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, You may surely eat of every tree of the garden, 17but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die. 18Then the Lord God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a helper fit for him. 19Now out of the ground the Lord God had formed every beast of the field and every bird of the heavens and brought them to the man to see what he would call them. And whatever the man called every living creature, that was its name. 20The man gave names to all livestock and to the birds of the heavens and to every beast of the field. But for Adam there was not found a helper fit for him. 21So the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and while he slept took one of his ribs and closed up its place with flesh. 22And the rib that the Lord God had taken from the man he made into a woman and brought her to the man. 23Then the man said, This at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. 24Therefore a man shall leave his father and his mother and hold fast to his wife, and they shall become one flesh. 25And the man and his wife were both naked and were not ashamed.
1Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. 2And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. 3And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made. 4These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens, 5And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground. 6But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground. 7And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. 8And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed. 9And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. 10And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. 11The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; 12And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone. 13And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. 14And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates. 15And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. 16And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: 17But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. 18And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him. 19And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof. 20And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him. 21And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; 22And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. 23And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. 24Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. 25And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.
The service book used by Roman Catholics which contains the Divine Office.
Book containing the Psalms and canticles.
Also known as Satan or Lucifer, the Bible depicts him as the chief of the fallen angels and demons, the arch enemy of God who mounts a significant, but ultimately futile, challenge to God's authority.
The firstborn son of Adam and Eve. His killing in jealousy of his brother Abel is the first murder described in the Bible, for which Cain was cursed.
The second son of Adam and Eve and first murder victim in the Bible.
One of Jesus' twelve disciples. According to the Gospels, he betrayed Jesus to the Jewish authorities in return for 30 pieces of silver and later hanged himself in despair.
Disobedience to the known will of God. According to Christian theology human beings have displayed a pre-disposition to sin since the Fall of Humankind.
Name originally given to disciples of Jesus by outsiders and gradually adopted by the Early Church.
The Bible describes God as the unique supreme being, creator and ruler of the universe.
To admit wrongdoing. In Christian practice, confession often forms part of communal worship; in addition formal confession may be made privately to a priest.
In many religions, the place where God dwells, and to which believers aspire after their death. Sometimes known as Paradise.
Undeserved favour. The Bible uses this term to describe God's gifts to human beings.
An image or form of comparison where one thing is said actually to be another - e.g. 'fleecy clouds'.
Word used in the Authorised Version of the Bible for punishment or destruction, referring to the fate of those who are found on the Day of Judgement to have rejected Jesus Christ (Revelation 20:12-15).
A new quality of life, beginning in the present but continuing after death, which Jesus is said to offer to those who believe in him.
Jesus describes hell as the place where Satan and his demons reside and the realm where unrepentant souls will go after the Last Judgement.
The name given to the man believed by Christians to be the Son of God. Also given the title Christ, meaning 'anointed one' or Messiah. His life is recorded most fully in the Four Gospels.
1. Instrument of execution used in the Roman Empire.
2. The means by which Jesus Christ was put to death and therefore the primary symbol of the Christian faith, representing the way in which he is believed to have won forgiveness for humankind.
A logical parallel to the thing being discussed, to help forward the argument. Often it is expressed as an extended simile. All analogies have their limits.
A religious order of monks who follow the rule of Saint Francis of Assisi founded in 1529
Member of male religious community.
The period of European history broadly between 1000AD-1500AD.
The name given to the man believed by Christians to be the Son of God. Also given the title Christ, meaning 'anointed one' or Messiah. His life is recorded most fully in the Four Gospels.
A sacred building used for worship. In the Bible, the Temple was the centre of Jewish worship in Jerusalem. In the New Testament, the term is also used as an image of the believer's physical body.
The city on a hill (Mt. Zion) which King David captured and made the capital of Israel. It was the site of the Temple built by Solomon and of the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. Today it is still a holy city for Jews, Christians and Muslims.
The mother of Jesus. The Gospels state that Mary's pregnancy was brought about by the Holy Spirit and not through a human relationship; she is therefore known as the 'Virgin'.