Narrators: Lockwood and Nelly.
Lockwood travels north and finds himself near Gimmerton. He visits Thrushcross Grange, then Wuthering Heights where Nelly is now living and working. As she resumes her story, he receives news of Heathclifff’s death and sees evidence of Cathy’s softening towards Hareton. Cathy is now 18 and Hareton 23.
As Lockwood approaches Wuthering Heights, he notices that the gate is open and flowers have been planted. These are clear symbols of change, and this is emphasised when Cathy is seen teaching Hareton to read in a much more affectionate way than before. Books provide a strong symbol of order and reason in this chapter. Nelly recounts how Cathy began to encourage Hareton to read; previously, he had made the running. It is, of course, convenient that Lockwood ‘unexpectedly’ finds himself in the area, but we accept this contrivance as we, like Lockwood, want to find out what has happened.
To devastate the moors: to shoot grouse and partridges on the moors.
Swells: ridges on the moors.
Hostler: stable man.
Mensful: clean and tidy.
A voice as sweet as a silver bell: the conversation appears to be full of threats, as before, but now it is all playful rather than aggressive, even the ‘smart slap’.
the lowest pit in the infernal regions: Christian tradition, influenced by Dante’s Inferno, saw hell as a deep chasm, with the deepest recesses reserved for the most evil.
Hahsiver: Howsoever / however.
I cannot oppen t' blessed Book, but yah set up them glories to sattan: Joseph wants to read his Bible and condemns Nelly’s folk songs as the music of Satan.
he's witched: Joseph cannot understand Hareton’s attraction to Cathy, echoing Hareton’s early description of her as a ‘saucy witch’.
Oh, Lord, judge 'em, for there's norther law nor justice among wer rullers!: Joseph echoes the language of the Psalms, many of which call for God’s justice in the face of human injustice. Wer: our.
Heathcliff dead?: we are told quite quickly that Heathcliff has died, but must wait to hear the circumstances.
Jocks: provisions, supplies.
Shoon: the archaic plural of ‘shoe’.
I thank you, and beg you to forgive me: Cathy breaks the novel’s cycle of retaliation by taking the steps taught by the Bible - a) listening to her conscience b) repenting of her behaviour c) confessing her fault and d) asking forgiveness.
spread his large Bible on the table, and overlaid it with dirty bank-notes: This is a vivid image of Joseph’s hypocrisy, and thus a sharp contract to the Christian behaviour of Cathy. Throughout the novel, Joseph has been described as a Pharisee and Brontë’s readers would be familiar with the passage where Jesus rebukes the Pharisees in Luke 16:13-15:
‘You cannot serve both God and Money.’ 14 The Pharisees, who loved money, heard all this and were sneering at Jesus. 15 He said to them, ‘You are the ones who justify yourselves in the eyes of others, but God knows your hearts.’ NIV
The intimacy thus commenced, grew rapidly…: the two young people are not perfect, but are both motivated by love.
Investigating Chapter 32
- Re-read the paragraph which describes what Lockwood sees when he looks in on Cathy and Hareton (beginning: ‘The male speaker…’). List the words used to describe the two young people.
- Why do you think that Emily Brontë uses these words here?
- English Standard Version
- King James Version
1He also said to the disciples, There was a rich man who had a manager, and charges were brought to him that this man was wasting his possessions. 2And he called him and said to him, What is this that I hear about you? Turn in the account of your management, for you can no longer be manager. 3And the manager said to himself, What shall I do, since my master is taking the management away from me? I am not strong enough to dig, and I am ashamed to beg. 4I have decided what to do, so that when I am removed from management, people may receive me into their houses. 5So, summoning his master's debtors one by one, he said to the first, How much do you owe my master? 6He said, A hundred measures of oil. He said to him, Take your bill, and sit down quickly and write fifty. 7Then he said to another, And how much do you owe? He said, A hundred measures of wheat. He said to him, Take your bill, and write eighty. 8The master commended the dishonest manager for his shrewdness. For the sons of this world are more shrewd in dealing with their own generation than the sons of light. 9And I tell you, make friends for yourselves by means of unrighteous wealth, so that when it fails they may receive you into the eternal dwellings. 10One who is faithful in a very little is also faithful in much, and one who is dishonest in a very little is also dishonest in much. 11If then you have not been faithful in the unrighteous wealth, who will entrust to you the true riches? 12And if you have not been faithful in that which is another's, who will give you that which is your own? 13No servant can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and money. 14The Pharisees, who were lovers of money, heard all these things, and they ridiculed him. 15And he said to them, You are those who justify yourselves before men, but God knows your hearts. For what is exalted among men is an abomination in the sight of God. 16The Law and the Prophets were until John; since then the good news of the kingdom of God is preached, and everyone forces his way into it. 17But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away than for one dot of the Law to become void. 18Everyone who divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery, and he who marries a woman divorced from her husband commits adultery. 19There was a rich man who was clothed in purple and fine linen and who feasted sumptuously every day. 20And at his gate was laid a poor man named Lazarus, covered with sores, 21who desired to be fed with what fell from the rich man's table. Moreover, even the dogs came and licked his sores. 22The poor man died and was carried by the angels to Abraham's side. The rich man also died and was buried, 23and in Hades, being in torment, he lifted up his eyes and saw Abraham far off and Lazarus at his side. 24And he called out, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus to dip the end of his finger in water and cool my tongue, for I am in anguish in this flame. 25But Abraham said, Child, remember that you in your lifetime received your good things, and Lazarus in like manner bad things; but now he is comforted here, and you are in anguish. 26And besides all this, between us and you a great chasm has been fixed, in order that those who would pass from here to you may not be able, and none may cross from there to us. 27And he said, Then I beg you, father, to send him to my father's house - 28for I have five brothers - so that he may warn them, lest they also come into this place of torment. 29But Abraham said, They have Moses and the Prophets; let them hear them. 30And he said, No, father Abraham, but if someone goes to them from the dead, they will repent. 31He said to him, If they do not hear Moses and the Prophets, neither will they be convinced if someone should rise from the dead.
1And he said also unto his disciples, There was a certain rich man, which had a steward; and the same was accused unto him that he had wasted his goods. 2And he called him, and said unto him, How is it that I hear this of thee? give an account of thy stewardship; for thou mayest be no longer steward. 3Then the steward said within himself, What shall I do? for my lord taketh away from me the stewardship: I cannot dig; to beg I am ashamed. 4I am resolved what to do, that, when I am put out of the stewardship, they may receive me into their houses. 5So he called every one of his lord's debtors unto him, and said unto the first, How much owest thou unto my lord? 6And he said, An hundred measures of oil. And he said unto him, Take thy bill, and sit down quickly, and write fifty. 7Then said he to another, And how much owest thou? And he said, An hundred measures of wheat. And he said unto him, Take thy bill, and write fourscore. 8And the lord commended the unjust steward, because he had done wisely: for the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light. 9And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; that, when ye fail, they may receive you into everlasting habitations. 10He that is faithful in that which is least is faithful also in much: and he that is unjust in the least is unjust also in much. 11If therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches? 12And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another man's, who shall give you that which is your own? 13No servant can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon. 14And the Pharisees also, who were covetous, heard all these things: and they derided him. 15And he said unto them, Ye are they which justify yourselves before men; but God knoweth your hearts: for that which is highly esteemed among men is abomination in the sight of God. 16The law and the prophets were until John: since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presseth into it. 17And it is easier for heaven and earth to pass, than one tittle of the law to fail. 18Whosoever putteth away his wife, and marrieth another, committeth adultery: and whosoever marrieth her that is put away from her husband committeth adultery. 19There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day: 20And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his gate, full of sores, 21And desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table: moreover the dogs came and licked his sores. 22And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried; 23And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. 24And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame. 25But Abraham said, Son, remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things: but now he is comforted, and thou art tormented. 26And beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence. 27Then he said, I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my father's house: 28For I have five brethren; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment. 29Abraham saith unto him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them. 30And he said, Nay, father Abraham: but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent. 31And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.
Name originally given to disciples of Jesus by outsiders and gradually adopted by the Early Church.
Jesus describes hell as the place where Satan and his demons reside and the realm where unrepentant souls will go after the Last Judgement.
The Christian Bible consists of the Old Testament scriptures inherited from Judaism, together with the New Testament, drawn from writings produced from c.40-125CE, which describe the life of Jesus and the establishment of the Christian church.
The devil; the term 'Satan' actually means 'Enemy' and is often used to refer to the force of evil in the world.
The Bible describes God as the unique supreme being, creator and ruler of the universe.
Meaning no longer in current usage; often used of obsolete words or phrases.
The act of turning away, or turning around from, one's sins, which includes feeling genuinely sorry for them, asking for the forgiveness of God and being willing to live in a different way in the future.
To admit wrongdoing. In Christian practice, confession often forms part of communal worship; in addition formal confession may be made privately to a priest.
1. The action of forgiving; pardon of a fault, remission of a debt.
2. Being freed from the burden of guilt, after committing a sin or crime, through being pardoned by the one hurt or offended.
Party of highly religious Jews who imposed strict observance of all the Jewish laws.
Essentially the hymn book of the Jerusalem temple, expressing the whole range of human emotion, from dark depression to exuberant joy; many attributed to David.
Big ideas: Psalms