Gerard Manley Hopkins, selected poems Contents
- As Kingfishers Catch Fire
- Binsey Poplars
- The Blessed Virgin Mary Compared to the Air We Breathe
- Carrion Comfort
- Duns Scotus' Oxford
- God's Grandeur
- Harry Ploughman
- Henry Purcell
- Hurrahing in Harvest
- I Wake and Feel the Fell of Dark
- Synopsis of I Wake and Feel the Fell of Dark
- Commentary on I Wake and Feel the Fell of Dark
- Language and tone in I Wake and Feel the Fell of Dark
- Structure and versification in I Wake and Feel the Fell of Dark
- Imagery and symbolism in I Wake and Feel the Fell of Dark
- Themes in I Wake and Feel the Fell of Dark
- The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo
- Synopsis of The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo
- Commentary on The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo
- Language and tone in The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo
- Structure and versification in The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo
- Imagery and symbolism in The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo
- Themes in The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo
- The May Magnificat
- My Own Heart, Let Me Have More Pity On
- Synopsis of My Own Heart, Let Me Have More Pity On
- Commentary on My Own Heart, Let Me Have More Pity On
- Language and tone in My Own Heart, Let Me Have More Pity On
- Structure and versification in My Own Heart, Let Me Have More Pity On
- Imagery and symbolism in My Own Heart, Let Me Have More Pity On
- Themes in My Own Heart, Let Me Have More Pity On
- No Worst, There is None
- Patience, Hard Thing!
- Pied Beauty
- The Sea and the Skylark
- Spelt from Sibyl's Leaves
- Spring and Fall
- St. Alphonsus Rodriguez
- The Starlight Night
- That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire and of the Comfort of the Resurrection
- Synopsis of That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire
- Commentary on That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire
- Language and tone in That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire
- Structure and versification in That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire
- Imagery and symbolism in That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire
- Themes in That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire
- Thou Art Indeed Just, Lord
- Tom's Garland
- To Seem the Stranger
- To What Serves Mortal Beauty
- The Windhover
- The Wreck of the Deutschland
- Synopsis of The Wreck of the Deutschland
- Commentary on The Wreck of the Deutschland
- Language and tone in The Wreck of the Deutschland
- Structure and versification in The Wreck of the Deutschland
- Imagery and symbolism in The Wreck of the Deutschland
- Themes in The Wreck of the Deutschland
- Beauty and its purpose
- The beauty, variety and uniqueness of nature
- Christ's beauty
- Conservation and renewal of nature
- God's sovereignty
- The grace of ordinary life
- Mary as a channel of grace
- Nature as God's book
- Night, the dark night of the soul
- Serving God
- Suffering and faith
- The temptation to despair
- The ugliness of modern life
- Understanding evil in a world God has made
Appendix 2: Inscape and instress
In the Context section, we briefly reviewed Hopkins' own theory of the nature of reality, in which he coined the terms inscape and instress. These were Hopkins' own words, and they do need some understanding. The terms convey the uniqueness of each created thing or person, and how that individuality is perceived or experienced by the observer. This idea was both ancient, being expressed particularly in the writings of the medieval theologian and philosopher, Duns Scotus, and modern, seen in the Romantic poets. Hopkins felt it was the artist's job to perceive and express such uniqueness, either in art or through words. He constantly attempted this in his journals and letters.
For example, Hopkins writes in his journal:
‘There is one notable dead tree....the inscape markedly holding its most simple and beautiful oneness up from the ground through a graceful swerve below (I think) the spring of the branches up to the tops of the timber. I saw the inscape freshly, as if my mind were still growing, though with a companion the eye and the ear are for the most part shut and instress cannot come.'
The quotation above suggests the need for contemplation to understand what one is seeing. Wordsworth experienced a similar inscape frequently in his time of living in the Lake District or in his travels. He called the particular intense experiences he had of a landscape ‘spots of time', and they had definite spiritual or mystical significance for him. When we say ‘landscape', that does not exclude people, as they too have their own inscape. Such experiences confirmed for Wordsworth the presence of some divine being beneath the surface of reality, and the instress was, as it were, a veil being briefly withdrawn, so that he could perceive this.
The whole Romantic enterprise was to see nature in its individuality, as opposed to the scientific approach of the eighteenth century, which had been to classify and generalise. With today's technology, we can see each snowflake as being different, have our fingerprints taken and our DNA profiled to establish our uniqueness. So there now is less clash between the impersonality of science and the intense individuality of Romanticism.
We need to return to Duns Scotus to see how Hopkins incorporated his own ideas into his theology: the poet meeting the priest. Duns Scotus is a very technical philosopher, who carefully labelled all his concepts, and made fine distinctions between them. This need not to concern us, except for the concept of haecceitas, or ‘thisness'. Haecceitas inhered in every created thing, inanimate, animal or human. It was the mark of its Creation by God, and it was active. So it was lived out in action and in movement: each thing veered towards a particular destiny or purpose. This process involved the will, the expression of individuality (whereas the intellect marks a common humanity). Duns Scotus bid great emphasis on the freedom of the will.
Haecceitas in Hopkins' Poetry
Hopkins expressed Scotus' concept as:
‘to be determined and distinctive is a perfection, either self-bestowed or bestowed from without.'
The poet's perfection, then, is to be writing poetry in a unique way, though, for Hopkins, this ability is bestowed from without, firstly by God, then by the language he is given to use.
We can see this quite clearly expressed in a number of poems. Some of these can be found discussed in Themes and significant ideas: The beauty, variety and uniqueness of nature.
Doing rather than being
‘Each mortal thing does one thing and the same'
It is in the doing, not the being, that inscape is established. So kingfishers ‘catch fire'; stones ‘ring', each hung bell has a different sound. This is itself:
‘Selves- goes itself; myself it speaks and spells, Crying What I dó is me: for that I came.' So it is what an individual does that is their telos or destiny (‘for that I came').
We might argue that all kingfishers are the same, they're just different from other birds. Certainly each ‘does one thing and the same', but it is ‘each mortal thing' not ‘each mortal species'. In the sestet, Hopkins talks more theologically about humans. He ‘Acts' what he ‘is'. In fulfilling his divine calling, he is, in fact, reflecting the Incarnation of his Creator, Jesus Christ. The paradox is that, as humans express their uniqueness, they are all reflecting the glory of God as expressed in Christ: it is the same Christ in all, yet differently expressed in each person.
Creating and receiving music
This thought has been put forward in Henry Purcell. Purcell was a musician but his inscape was in his actually writing music, music like no other composer's. Hopkins clearly had a high view of originality, but that originality was not something put on, like clothing, but had to be from the core personality of the person. What Hopkins adds further is an account of the instress on the hearer
‘it is the rehearsal Of own, of abrupt self there so thrusts on, so throngs the ear.'
He then spends the sestet finding images to convey the instress on him, the effect of taking this music into his very being.
The inscape of poetry
In many of his attempts to describe inscape in landscapes or seascapes, Hopkins talks of inner laws. Instress could be seen as an intuition or sudden perception of the ‘inner law' of a thing or person. Hopkins seems especially fascinated by parallel lines as one such law of form.
It has been argued that, for Hopkins, parallelism is the inscape of poetry. Certainly in Hebrew poetry it is, but it is probably too much to apply this to the variety of Hopkins' poetry. Nevertheless, figures of speech, especially metaphor, simile, antithesis, could be seen as parallels of thought; whilst repeating patterns of rhythm, rhyme and alliteration could be seen as parallels of sound.
Certainly, Hopkins even tries to establish the inscape of particular words, linking them together in sound, playing with the sound and sense, to make us distinguish differences, as ‘dandled a sandalled' or ‘Hack and rack' from Binsey Poplars. Compound words are another way to express the inscape of poetry. We take two familar words, put them together and in the fusion, a unique sense is created, such as ‘bell-swarmed, lark-charmed' (Duns Scotus' Oxford). For Hopkins, language needed constant refreshment to keep its inscape. This was the poet's task.
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