John Keats, selected poems Contents
- Bright Star! Would I were steadfast as thou
- The Eve of St Agnes
- ‘Hush, hush! tread softly! hush, hush, my dear!’
- Isabella: or The Pot of Basil
- La Belle Dame Sans Merci
- Lines to Fanny (‘What can I do to drive away’)
- O Solitude, if I must with thee dwell
- Ode on a Grecian Urn
- Ode on Indolence
- Ode to a Nightingale
- Ode to Autumn
- Ode to Melancholy
- Ode to Psyche
- On First Looking Into Chapman’s Homer
- On Seeing the Elgin Marbles
- On the Sea
- Sleep and Poetry
- Time’s sea hath been five years at its slow ebb
- To Ailsa Rock
- To Leigh Hunt
- To Mrs Reynolds’s Cat
- To My Brothers
- To Sleep
- When I have fears that I may cease to be
Methodism was a religious movement which began in the eighteenth century as an attempt to reform the Church of England from within. It was founded by John Wesley, an Anglican priest, who, along with his brother Charles, underwent an intensely emotional religious experience in 1738. Their ministry often consisted of preaching in the open air to groups of workers whose living conditions were poor and who felt themselves neglected by the Church of England.
Wesley re-emphasised the biblical doctrines that:
- Individuals may be assured of their salvation because of the grace of God
- By the power of the Holy Spirit, they are capable of attaining perfect love for God and their fellow human beings.
The Wesleyan Methodist Church (which separated from the Church of England in 1795) grew rapidly during the period of Keats’ life, especially in industrial areas. The emotional engagement of its adherents with Christianity has been likened to the stress on feeling and passion to be found in Keats and the other Romantic poets. Just as Methodism stressed the individual’s personal relationship with God, so the Romantics stressed the primacy of the imagination and each man’s individual response to experience.
The Evangelical Revival
Evangelicalism was predominantly an Anglican movement which started in the mid-eighteenth century and which had strong links to Methodism. Its characteristics included:
- A literal interpretation of the Bible
- Strict keeping of the Sabbath
- Preaching in order to convert
- Reform of the heart
- A stress on the sins of humanity
- The need for personal salvation.
The new Evangelicals were also passionately opposed to slavery and attacked the moral laxity of the privileged as a poor example for the lower orders. They also worked hard to warn of the dangers of alcohol (establishing the temperance movement) as well as criticising the weakness of the established Church and its moral message.
As British society, and Europe in general, were very turbulent in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, Evangelicalism offered stability. In order to achieve the goal of world-wide mission, the Church Missionary Society (1799) and the British and Foreign Bible Society (1804) were founded.
Although Keats ultimately rejected the Christian message, the passionate strength of his convictions has much in common with the energy to be found in the religious movements of his time.
A Protestant church which emerged in Britain in the eighteenth century under the leadership of John Wesley and has members worldwide.
The 'Established' or state church of England, the result of a break with the Catholic church under Henry VIII and further developments in the reign of Elizabeth I.
(1703-1791) A Church of England minister who founded the Methodist denomination with his brother Charles.
The Anglican church is the 'Established' or state church of England, the result of a break with the Catholic church under Henry VIII and further developments in the reign of Elizabeth I.
A person whose role is to carry out religious functions.
Undeserved favour. The Bible uses this term to describe God's gifts to human beings.
The Bible describes God as the unique supreme being, creator and ruler of the universe.
The third person of the Trinity (God in three persons). Came upon the disciples at Pentecost after Jesus had ascended in to heaven.
The beliefs, doctrines and practices of Christians.
In English Literature, it denotes a period between 1785-1830, when the previous classical or enlightenment traditions and values were overthrown, and a freer, more individual mode of writing emerged.
1. Term used of all Protestant churches since the Reformation. 2. Movement in England and elsewhere from the eighteenth century onwards which stresses the importance of the Bible in understanding the truth about God and the need for individuals to e
The Christian Bible consists of the Old Testament scriptures inherited from Judaism, together with the New Testament, drawn from writings produced from c.40-125CE, which describe the life of Jesus and the establishment of the Christian church.
The seventh day of the Jewish week, on which people were to rest from work.
To turn (or to cause to turn to) or adopt a different set of beliefs, usually religious. Often used of turning to Christianity.
Disobedience to the known will of God. According to Christian theology human beings have displayed a pre-disposition to sin since the Fall of Humankind.
In the Bible, salvation is seen as God's commitment to save or rescue his people from sin (and other dangers) and to establish his kingdom.
Persons of low social status, usually characterised by low incomes and lack of education.
1. Restraint, self control. One of the Four 'Cardinal Virtues'. 2. Used especially of avoidance of excess in eating and drinking. Often used of complete abstinence from alcohol.
The recognised Church of the state, for example, the Church of England.
1. A group of people sent out to share religious faith. 2. The task of sharing faith.
Someone sent on or engaged in a religious mission.
Name originally given to disciples of Jesus by outsiders and gradually adopted by the Early Church.
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