John Keats, selected poems Timeline

Year Historical Literary Author
1785 First steam engine installed
1787 Formation of a Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade
1788 The Times founded
1789 French Revolution and fall of the Bastille
First steam-driven cotton factory opens in Manchester
1790 First steam-driven rolling mill opens Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France
1791 Darwin's The Botanic Garden Paine's Rights of Man, part 1
1792 Abolition of French monarchy and Republic declared; Louis XVI of France is put on trial Paine's Rights of Man, part 2
Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
1793 Britain and France at war
Louis XVI and his queen, Marie-Antoinette are executed. Reign of Terror begins.
Godwin's Political Justice
1794 Execution of Danton and Robespierre in France Godwin's Caleb Williams
1795 Food riots
Rise of Napoleon
 Thomas Carlyle born
More's Cheap Repository Tracts

Adam Smith writes Essays on Philosophical Subjects 

John Keats born, the eldest of Thomas and Frances Keats’ four children

1796 Failure of French attempt to invade Ireland. Peace negotiations with France break down.

Napoleon Bonaparte marries Josephine and invades Italy

Peace negotiations with France break down
Wollstonecraft's Letters Written During a Short Residence in Sweden, Denmark and Norway
 M.G. Lewis writes The Monk
1797 Failure of French attempt to invade through Wales. Mutinies in navy
Naval mutinies at Spithead and Nore
Birth of Schubert
Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin born in London; her mother, Mary Wollstonecraft, dies ten days later
1798 French forces land in Ireland. Government extends control of newspapers. Nelson defeats French in Egypt at Battle of the Nile

Battle of the Nile; Nelson destroys French fleet

Wordsworth and Coleridge's Lyrical Ballads
Wollstonecraft's The Wrongs of Woman published

Malthus: An Essay on the Principle of Population

1799 Combination Act bans some political societies
Introduction of income tax
Britain at war with France
Godwin's St Leon
1800 Act of Union of Ireland with Britain (takes effect 1801)
Food riots in many places in Britain
Volta generates electricity
Maria Edgeworth: Castle Rackrent
Walter Scott: The Eve of St John
1801 High food prices and economic and social unrest
First Factory Act
First cencus of England and Wales
Thomas Jefferson elected President of the USA
Union of Great Britain and Ireland
1802 Peace of Amiens ends war with France
Health and Morals of Apprentices Act passes Parliament
Edward, Keats’ baby brother, dies
1803 War with France begins again
Richard Trevithick builds first working railway steam engine
Godwin's Life of Chaucer

Starts school at Enfield Academy. Much influenced by the Headmaster, John Clarke and becomes a friend of Clarke’s son, Cowden

1804 Napoleon preparing invasion of England
Napoleon crowned Emperor
War with Spain
Ann and Jane Taylor's Original Poems for Infant Minds

Death of Keats’ father (April 15). Mother remarries within two months

1805 Nelson's victory at Trafalgar
Battle of Austerlitz

Walter Scott: The Lay of the Last Minstrel 

Robert Southey: Poems 
Keats’ mother leaves the family
1806 Napoleon defeats Prussians and establishes trade blockade of Britain
End of the Holy Roman Empire

Slave trade abolished in all British possessions

Charles and Mary Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare
Bowdler: The Family Shakespeare

Hazlitt: Essays 

Leigh Hunt: Essays
1808 Start of Peninsular War

Beethoven: Fifth and Sixth Symphonies

Cowper: Poems
Keats' mother returns returns to the family
1809 Proposals for Parliamentary reform are defeated in the House of Commons
Quarterly Review founded
First use of gas-lighting in central London
Battle of Corunna 

Arthur Wellesley defeats the French at Talavera and is created Duke of Wellington

Tennyson is born
Birth of Alfred, Lord Tennyson, poet
1810 George III suffering from mental illness
Napoleon annexes the Netherlands
Chopin and Schumann are born
Coleridge lectures on Shakespeare Mother dies of tuberculosis. 

Keats becomes eldest male in family (aged 14)

1811 Luddite machine-breakers active in the Midland counties of England.

Prince of Wales becomes Regent following the insanity of his father George III

Luddites begin destroying factory machinery
Shelley is expelled from Oxford
Keats leaves school

Starts apprenticeship to surgeon Thomas Hammond in Edmonton

1812 War with America begins (until 1814)
Further Luddite unrest
Prime Minister Spencer Percival assassinated
Napoleon begins invasion of Russia
Wellington defeats French at Salamanca
Battle of Borodino

Napoleon enters Moscow but begins a retreat one month later
Birth of Robert Browning, poet
The Brothers Grimm publish their Tales
Shelley publishes Declaration of Rights

Continues friendship with the Clarkes at Enfield

Begins to ‘devour’ Ovid, Milton, Virgil and especially Edmund Spenser - The Faerie Queene is a work which awakens Keats’ genius.

1813 Toleration Act for Unitarians
Leigh Hunt imprisoned for libelling Prince Regent
Wellington enters France
Napoleon defeated at Battle of Leipzig
Prussian army begins invasion of France
1814 Robert Stephenson builds steam locomotive
Napoleon abdicates and is banished to Elba
End of war with America
Congress of Vienna
Allies enter Paris
British burn Washington in USA
Scott's Waverley

First known efforts to write verse: Imitation of Spenser, To Lord Byron

1815 Napoleon returns from Elba and is defeated at Waterloo
Corn Law passed

Leigh Hunt released from prison on Feb. 3 

Napoleon returns to France and enters Paris
Napoleon finally defeated by Wellington at the battle of Waterloo
Napoleon banished to St Helena
John Nash begins the Brighton Pavilion
Scott's Guy Mannering

Moves to London and registers at Guy’s Hospital for surgeon/apothecary course

Writes a sonnet on Leigh Hunt’s release from prison

Writes To Hope as well as Ode to Apollo
1816 Riots in East Anglia and the manufacturing districts of the north of England
Economic depression
William Cobbett's Political Register

 Shelley marries Mary Godwin

Scott's The Antiquary

Keats meets Leigh Hunt who encourages his writing and becomes a life-long influence

Writes I stood tip-toe and Sleep and Poetry

Decides to leave medical career to concentrate on poetry

Writes On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer

O Solitude is his first published poem (appears in The Examiner)

1817 Prince Regent's coach attacked: further repressive measures by Government. Further social unrest
Manchester 'Blanketeers' march to London
Scott's Rob Roy
Hazlitt's Characters of Shakespeare's Plays
Southey's Wat Tyler

First volume of Poems published on March 3

Sees Elgin Marbles
Begins writing Endymion
Meets Wordsworth 
1818 Proposals for Parliamentary reform are twice defeated in the House of Commons
Percy and Mary Shelley depart from England for the final time
Peacock's Nightmare Abbey
Scott's Heart of Midlothian
Keats' Endymion
Endymion published in April to hostile reviews
Writes Isabella: or The Pot of Basil

Goes on six week walking tour of England and Scotland with Charles Algernon Brown; becomes ill

Returns to London to find brother Tom ill with tuberculosis 

Begins Hyperion when nursing his brother

Tom dies aged 19 

1819 Peterloo massacres in Manchester and passing of Six Acts placing restrictions on the press and public assemblies
Poor Relief Act passed
Factory Act passed
Queen Victoria born
Birth of Albert (later Prince Consort)
Scott's Ivanhoe; The Bride of Lammermoor

Leigh Hunt: Hero and Leander

J.H. Reynolds: Benjamin the Waggoner; Peter Bell (both parodies of Wordsworth)

Moves to Hampstead

Meets Fanny Brawne. They fall in love and become engaged

Writes many of his best-known poems, including: The Eve of St Agnes, The Eve of St Mark and the odes To Psyche, To a Nightingale, On a Grecian Urn, To Autumn, To Indolence

Shows the first symptoms of tuberculosis 

1820 Death of George III and accession of George IV
Royal Astronomical Society founded
Lamb's Essays of Elia
Maturin's Melmoth the Wanderer
Keats' Lamia, Isabella, The Eve of St Agnes and other poems
1821 Another reform bill defeated in Commons
Greek War of Independence
Scott's Kenilworth
Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium-Eater
Death of John Keats

Colony for freed slaves founded in Liberia 

Thomas de Quincey, Confessions of an English Opium Eater
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