Gerard Manley Hopkins, selected poems Contents
- As Kingfishers Catch Fire
- Binsey Poplars
- The Blessed Virgin Mary Compared to the Air We Breathe
- Carrion Comfort
- Duns Scotus' Oxford
- God's Grandeur
- Harry Ploughman
- Henry Purcell
- Hurrahing in Harvest
- I Wake and Feel the Fell of Dark
- Synopsis of I Wake and Feel the Fell of Dark
- Commentary on I Wake and Feel the Fell of Dark
- Language and tone in I Wake and Feel the Fell of Dark
- Structure and versification in I Wake and Feel the Fell of Dark
- Imagery and symbolism in I Wake and Feel the Fell of Dark
- Themes in I Wake and Feel the Fell of Dark
- The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo
- Synopsis of The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo
- Commentary on The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo
- Language and tone in The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo
- Structure and versification in The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo
- Imagery and symbolism in The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo
- Themes in The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo
- The May Magnificat
- My Own Heart, Let Me Have More Pity On
- Synopsis of My Own Heart, Let Me Have More Pity On
- Commentary on My Own Heart, Let Me Have More Pity On
- Language and tone in My Own Heart, Let Me Have More Pity On
- Structure and versification in My Own Heart, Let Me Have More Pity On
- Imagery and symbolism in My Own Heart, Let Me Have More Pity On
- Themes in My Own Heart, Let Me Have More Pity On
- No Worst, There is None
- Patience, Hard Thing!
- Pied Beauty
- The Sea and the Skylark
- Spelt from Sibyl's Leaves
- Spring and Fall
- St. Alphonsus Rodriguez
- The Starlight Night
- That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire and of the Comfort of the Resurrection
- Synopsis of That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire
- Commentary on That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire
- Language and tone in That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire
- Structure and versification in That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire
- Imagery and symbolism in That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire
- Themes in That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire
- Thou Art Indeed Just, Lord
- Tom's Garland
- To Seem the Stranger
- To What Serves Mortal Beauty
- The Windhover
- The Wreck of the Deutschland
- Synopsis of The Wreck of the Deutschland
- Commentary on The Wreck of the Deutschland
- Language and tone in The Wreck of the Deutschland
- Structure and versification in The Wreck of the Deutschland
- Imagery and symbolism in The Wreck of the Deutschland
- Themes in The Wreck of the Deutschland
- Beauty and its purpose
- The beauty, variety and uniqueness of nature
- Christ's beauty
- Conservation and renewal of nature
- God's sovereignty
- The grace of ordinary life
- Mary as a channel of grace
- Nature as God's book
- Night, the dark night of the soul
- Serving God
- Suffering and faith
- The temptation to despair
- The ugliness of modern life
- Understanding evil in a world God has made
A fresh approach
Hopkins began to develop a desire to move English poetry beyond its traditional metric rhythms, as did a number of his Victorian contemporaries, such as Robert Browning and Algernon Swinburne. There was a feeling that the Romantics and Tennyson had taken English verse to a sort of metrical perfection, and there was no point in continuing this. It was becoming stultified and uncreative.
The influence of music and speech
Hopkins was extremely musical, also, and had a keen sense of musical rhythm, which tends to accentuate the first beat of the bar, unless syncopated in some way. This is more akin to the falling metres of poetry. Music also counterpoints, laying one rhythm over another. Hopkins also followed Romantic predecessors such as William Wordsworth, in believing the language of poetry should not be cut off from the common, everyday language of people. He wrote, ‘Poetical language should be the current language heightened.' Wordsworth applied this to diction; Hopkins also wanted to apply it to speech rhythms, as did Browning in many of his Dramatic Monologues.
Eventually, Hopkins put all three types of rhythm together to form his new rhythm, which he called sprung rhythm. He had also studied other poetry - Greek, Latin, Old English, Welsh - and took ideas from these as well. The Wreck of the Deutschland was the first poem in which he put this new rhythm into action.
The characteristics of sprung rhythm include the following:
Scansion should be by means of the stressed syllables only. It doesn't matter how many or how few unstressed syllables there are. The patterning will only come from the accented ones:
‘Wórld's| stránd,| swáy| of the séa' (The Wreck, stanza 1)
where the little unstressed syllables are outnumbered two to four by the stressed.
At the other extreme:
‘I stéad|y as a wát|er in a wéll,| to a póise,| to a páne' (The Wreck, stanza 4)
has eleven unstressed syllables to five stressed ones.
As you will have seen in the analysis of The Wreck, Hopkins is very disciplined about the number of accented syllables in each stanza, even though he adopted a complicated scheme.
In sprung rhythm, it is difficult to scan the lines as a whole as iambic, anapaestic etc. We can either generalise, as with the last example, by saying it is a rising metre, or we can just describe each foot separately, saying: there is an iamb, followed by a nameless foot with three unstressed syllables followed by a stress, followed by two anapaests. As that doesn't sound very good, we could re-arrange the scansion and make the first foot rocking: ‘I stéady| as...', thus making the rest of the line three anapaests, probably a neater solution. It does mean there is some ambiguity in terms of classical scansion, but the anapaestic solution would give a strong rising rhythm to the line, and is thus to be preferred.
Extra feet can be added to the line which would not count in the scansion. In other words, Hopkins was still thinking in terms of traditional line lengths and patterns, but not wanting to be too much constrained by them. Later poets, such as T.S.Eliot, were to take this and move English verse into Free Verse.
These extra syllables/feet were called outrides, outriders, or outriding feet by Hopkins. In his copies of the poems he sent to Bridges he often marks them with a loop under them. Thus, in The Windhover, in l.3:
‘Of the rolling level underneath him steady air, and striding'
Hopkins puts loops under ‘-ing lev-' and ‘him'. Without that, we would put a stress on ‘lev-' and so get a hexameter instead of the pentameter needed for the sonnet form. So according to Hopkins, we should scan the line:
‘Of the róll|(ing lev)el únd|erneath (him) stéad|y áir,| and stríding'
where all the feet are rising except, apparently the last, which appears to be rocking.
In fact, the last foot of that line is not rocking at all, as Hopkins meant the last unstressed syllable to be attached to the next line, so making the foot: ‘ing/ Hígh|...' - in other words, an iambic. So, another innovation Hopkins employs is to make the scansion continuous, and so it does not stop at the end of each line, as in traditional scansion. Thus, the enjambement has to be noted as part of the metre.
One of Hopkins' other attempts was to introduce the musical idea of the beat falling on the first note of the bar. This is really a falling metre, but the whole force of end rhymes and the sentence structure of the English language works against that, so what we mostly have are first-foot inversions, if anything. This is most noticeable in opening lines, such as:
‘Súmmer| énds now;| now, bárb|arous.....' (Hurrahing in Harvest)
where the iambic resumes after the caesura (marked by the semi-colon).
‘Glóry| bé to| Gód for| dáppled| thíngs –' (Pied Beauty)
where the trochees keep going till the fifth foot, where the pressure for a masculine rhyme brings a spondee.
The rhythms of speech
Hopkins' attempts to bring speech rhythms into his sprung rhythm as dramatic monologue were similarly patchy and inconsistent. One of the most striking examples is:
‘But how shall I.....make me room there: Reach me a.....Fancy, come faster …' (The Wreck, stanza 28)
where he conveys dramatically the excitation of his mind: he can hardly get the words out. Elsewhere, he shows an inclination to use exclamations: ‘oh' ‘ah' and so on. These give rise to little pauses, creating musical and dramatic effect. Music often has rests, where a pause counted as a beat. Hopkins writes in such pauses as exclamations or even just dots. Elsewhere he uses questions to create dramatic monologue, as in:
‘The majesty! what did she mean?' (The Wreck, stanza 25)
But in a poem like Spelt from Sibyl's Leaves he has clearly abandoned any attempt at normal speech.
The main musical innovation was in the idea of counterpointing, having two ‘tunes' or sound patterns or rhythms criss-crossing each other. The most obvious way of achieving this is through enjambement. The metrical and musical rhythm sees the line-ending as its natural unit, re-inforced often by the rhyme. The speech rhythm, however, looks to the sense and punctuation, so may well continue through one line into the next. Thus two distinct rhythms are in operation. In sonnets like The Windhover or Hurrahing in Harvest, the counterpointing is only resolved at the end of the octave, sestet, quatrain or tercet.
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